EUI MWP Newsletter 20
Winter 2021

Welcome to the Winter 2021 Issue of the
Max Weber Programme Newsletter

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Feature Articles

Roberta BiasilloThe title of this blog post is the title of a special issue edited by Roberta Biasillo and Elisa Tizzoni for the Italian journal Diacronie. Studi di Storia Contemporanea, a peer-reviewed, open-access journal specialising in modern history that publishes contributions in Italian, French, English and Spanish. The editors discuss the debates, innovation and questions that Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s most inspiring essay "Can the Subaltern Speak?" can bring out if reinterpreted through the lens of environmental history. 

Both of us are historians and both of us have conducted research on different topics whose common denominator has been the environment.

Environmental history as a sub-discipline emerged in the 1970s and, like other contemporary branches of the discipline, is a mix of traditional and innovative elements, institutional and grassroots sources, top-down and bottom-up gazes, epic narratives and everyday stories. Since its birth, the historical category of the environment has slowly but surely seeped its way into the well-established realms of economic, social and political history, and thus has made history more spacious, if not more inclusive. Scientists, agronomists, the climate and climatic events, everyday practices, slow and fast landscape transformation, engineers, laboratories and urban planners started to enrich the reconstructions of the past.

In relation to these very features of such a sub-discipline, this special issue has several goals. It pushes forward the boundaries of environmental history by taking advantage of the topicality and relevance that ecological elements are gaining in scholarly debate and public discourse nowadays. It calls again for an opening up of the discipline by questioning its human and cultural domains of interest and by listening to its multiple surrounding contexts. Finally, it reflects on trends that are bridging historical methods and critical approaches coming from political ecology and environmental humanities. Since those trends have remained mostly untheorized so far, we decided to address them and worked at the confluence of environmental history and subaltern studies.

What if we combine environmental history with the main innovations that have affected both social theories and humanistic approaches over recent decades, such as the provincialization of Europe and the opportunity to listen to subaltern voices? How can we consider the environment the vehicle of non-Western stories, of stories that are hybrid and hard to classify as European or non-European, marginal or non-marginal? What challenges arise when the story is not in a landscape, a plant or an animal but places, plants and animals are stories themselves in a continuum with the humans? What tools and skills do historians need to abandon and what to develop instead in order to make room for such a shift and multi-species collaboration?

We replied to those questions through a collection of nine original papers spanning early modern times to very recent years and covering different areas of the world, from North Africa to Latin America, from Papua New Guinea to Portugal. Past and present subalterns speak in this special issue: battery hens, hunted seals, guerrilla groups, grassroots movements, waste pickers, women, slaves, indigenous and ethnically-mixed peoples, the Amazon forest.

Along with other colleagues, we interrogated three influential scholars with different disciplinary and geographical backgrounds. Dipesh Chakrabarty suggested new ways to integrate scales and temporalities; James Ogude unfolded the political, ethical and environmental conundrum at the basis of post-apartheid South Africa; Julie Sze focussed on environmental and climate injustice, how to recognise them and how to integrate sources in-the-making in scholarly output.

To conclude, we would like to bring your attention to three possible answers, or better reflections, that we consider to be the take-aways from this journal issue. The first reflection concerns the terms subaltern and subalternity and their relationship with the terms indigenous and indigeneity. Although Subaltern Studies and Indigenous Studies remain separate domains, their analyses shed light on the condition of “disposable” communities affected by injustice and inequality, the daily experience of colonial legacies, practices of cultural and political resistance. Is the correspondence between indigenous/subaltern and marginal still valid and is it worthy further exploration?

The second reflection concerns the discipline of history and the writing of history. It is no longer possible to avoid the acknowledgement of the active role of nature. Questioning anthropocentrism is a lesson that western-centric historians need to learn from communities that are fighting back against the effects of climate change and ongoing ecological emergencies. Indeed, from a theoretical perspective, neo-materialism and the Actor-Network-Theory represent only the most visible tools to recognise environmental subjectivity, but there are many more nuanced and negotiated options on how to integrate nature in reconstructions of the past.

The last take-away is an invitation to scholars not to overlook injustices and their stratification: the reclamation of allegedly “unproductive” natures is always coupled with social and cultural reclamation projects and in such overarching transformation, forms of violence and injustice build up and intersect each other. Thus, postcolonial environmental history needs to dig deep into environmental injustice, racism, speciesism and gender discrimination simultaneously.

If you want to read more: «Can the Subaltern Speak» through the Environment? At the confluence of Environmental History and Subaltern Studies, eds. Roberta Biasillo and Elisa Tizzoni, N°44, 4|2020 Diacronie. Studi di Storia Contemporanea.


Valentin JentschAt the 14th Max Weber Fellows’ June Conference, which took place on 18 and 19 June 2020, I was invited to offer a few observations on the law of contracts in the age of the Coronavirus pandemic. In my short presentation, I addressed the question of whether the statutory risk allocation pursuant to the Swiss Code of Obligations is still adequate. Making the case against an extraordinary law of contracts in times of pandemic, I was already then deeply concerned about the increasing erosion of the principle of pacta sunt servanda, which requires that agreements must be kept.

In a recent working paper, published in the Swiss online law review Jusletter, I examined the contribution general legal institutions can make to coping with the pandemic and whether Switzerland needs an extraordinary law of contracts in times of pandemic. Using a functional and doctrinal approach, I rather critically assessed the increasing erosion of the principle of pacta sunt servanda by the legislative, judicial and executive branch of government.

In another working paper, forthcoming in the European Business Law Review, I analyzed and discussed various extraordinary measures, taken by European governments, when the first wave hit Europe, and put those measures into perspective. Using a functional and comparative approach, I not only provided a factual analysis of what changed in response to Covid-19, but also sought to provide a normative legal analysis. This contribution was featured in the Oxford Business Law Blog.

In this brief article, I aim to outline a few thoughts and ideas from my ongoing research on Corona and contracts. In this ongoing research, which draws on five important civil law jurisdictions (Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France, Italy), I elaborate on excuses of contractual performance and remedies for breach of contract and on adaption or termination of contractual obligations. This is important because many participants of the economy are faced with the fundamental question of whether existing contracts are still valid and binding, and thus must be adhered to, or whether performance may be suspended or its acceptance refused. My ongoing research supports the hypothesis that, despite structural differences, the application of general legal institutions largely leads to similar end results.

The legal institution of subsequent impossibility generally applies to a situation where contractual performance becomes permanently impossible. In such a situation, all jurisdictions under examination excuse performance and counter-performance, at least if no party is responsible for the impediment, and they provide for remedies such as damages if a party is responsible for the impossibility. Switzerland and France are exceptions, not excusing parties from their duties if they are at fault. In addition, impossibility is defined very broadly in Austria, for instance.

The legal institution of delay of debtor is applicable to situations where contractual performance is only temporarily impossible because of default of the debtor. In general, no prevention, but only a suspension of contractual performance may result from such situations. Damages are in some cases owed regardless of a debtor’s fault, in other cases only if the debtor is at fault. In addition, creditors have various remedies at their disposal, which vary from one jurisdiction to another.

The legal institution of delay of creditor is also applicable to situations where contractual performance is only temporarily impossible, but in this case the impossibility of performance is a result of the default of the creditor. Under certain conditions, the debtor may excuse contractual performance, while the creditor remains bound by the contract. As the delay of a creditor does not lead to a breach of contract, but to specific negative consequences, the creditor is generally not liable for damages.

It is generally accepted in all five jurisdictions under examination that a change of circumstances, which renders contractual performance impossible, may release a party from his or her obligations to perform under a contract. Those jurisdictions evaluate it differently, however, whether economic disadvantages or mere impracticability also have an effect on releasing the party from his or her contractual obligations. Germany and France have such institutions already codified in their civil codes. Austria, Switzerland and Italy do not, but similar institutions are widely recognized here as well.

The extraordinary termination of permanent contracts for cause is firmly established in the German-speaking jurisdictions. This institution was codified in Germany, while legal doctrine and case law in Austria and Switzerland generally recognize it, without being codified there. Termination for cause leads to the dissolution of a permanent contract for the future, whereas performance already rendered is not affected by such termination. The relevant institutions in France and Italy lead to the same – or, at least, to a very similar – result.

A first interim conclusion of my ongoing research is that there is no need for a uniform breach of contract action with regard to permanent or temporary default, not even in times of pandemic. The distinction between temporary and permanent default of performance is convincing, as it allows different situations to be treated differently. Subsequent impossibility should be assumed restrictively, at least if the law provides no separate legal consequences for temporary impediments. As a result, remedies of delay rather than those of impossibility should be claimed during the coronavirus pandemic. Doing so pays tribute to the principle of pacta sunt servanda, namely by keeping contractual obligations alive. This is why the distinction between temporary and permanent default should not be abolished.

A second interim conclusion of my ongoing research is that there is a need for codification of institutions on adaption or termination of contractual obligations, as well as and in particular in times of pandemic. Since the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic, the practical importance of all institutions on adaption or termination of contractual obligations has steadily increased. It is further worth mentioning that the codification history of these institutions has been quite different in various European jurisdictions. Because adaption and termination of contracts is most likely to become more important in the near future and the quality of judicial decisions will certainly benefit from clear requirements and consequences, codification would also contribute to respect of the principle of pacta sunt servanda.



Facts and Figures about the Applications to the Max Weber Fellowships in 2020For the Fellowships of 2021-2022, the Max Weber Programme received 1,133 applications from 91 different countries. This number is a (little) higher than the previous year (1,071).

As in other years, the appeal of the Programme reached out globally and applications came in from around the world (Figure 1).

Applications by world region in 2019 and 2020 (Figure 1):

The European region remains by a long shot the strongest contributor of applications (603), followed by Asia (191) and North America (191).

The US takes the lion’s share of applications (166) (Figure 2), followed by Italy (146), the United Kingdom (68), India and Germany (53 and 50, respectively).

Applications 2020 by country of origin (top 20 countries) (Figure 2):

The gender ratio among applicants is slightly in favour of males (56%).

The gender distribution by department instead reveals a degree of disparity by discipline (Figure 3). Applications by women to the department of Economics are one third (31%). History, Law and Political and Social Sciences also show a gender gap in favour of men, whilst the Robert Schuman Centre instead seems to appeal more to women (58%) than men (42%).

Gender ratio of applicants by department (Figure 3):

The department of History and Civilization received the largest share of applications (400), followed by Political and Social Sciences with 390 (12 fewer applications than in 2019), ECO (141), LAW (129) and The Robert Schuman Centre (73) (Figure 4).

Applications by department (Figure 4):


Teaching Abroad 2021A new year and a new cohort of MW Fellows will be off on a teaching mission abroad in Spring 2021. UPF is offering an online teaching-training week to five Fellows from January to March, another seven Fellows go to Masaryk University in May, from 3rd to 7th, and another four fellows are at Humboldt from 17th to 21st May. This year two Fellows will be teaching at the University of Luxembourg from March to May, and two at the College of Europe (Natolin). In total, nineteen MW Fellows are going abroad for teaching practice week this year.

Read more


June ConferenceThe shock and grief of 2020 have prompted a search for healing and renewal. The Covid-19 pandemic exposed and exacerbated inequalities, upended common understandings of time and space, raised doubts about the knowledge of experts, and mobilised reactions from opposite ends of the political spectrum. At the same time, it has highlighted the world’s interdependence, inspired collective approaches to shared problems, and aroused creativity and resilience among individuals and societies. Fear and fatigue are coupled with hope in change. The 15th Max Weber conference welcomes reflections on political, economic, legal, and historical questions that offer insight into varying forms of recovery and regeneration.
We welcome theoretical, empirical, and methodological contributions that focus on, but are not limited to, the following themes: public health; social isolation and interconnection; trust between the population and authority; ideological polarisation; sharing and flow of information; changes in the nature of work and income sources; addressing climate change; and cultural and social transformation.

We invite applications from current and former Max Weber Fellows, as well as from current Jean Monnet and Marie Skłodowska-Curie Fellows at the EUI or at other institutions. Deadline for submissions: 8 March 2021.

Two types of submission are possible: 

  1. Individual papers (can be co-authored) (10-15 minute presentations) 
  2. Panel Proposals (3-4 connected presentations from different disciplines and research clusters) 

Organizing Committee:
Aline Bertolin (LAW),Wanshu Cong (LAW), Guadalupe Correa Lopera (ECO), Joy Neumeyer (HEC), Marius Ostrowski (RSC), Shubha Prasad (SPS)

More details on our website


MWP Alumni’s Corner

Podcast SeriesOrganisers (MW Fellows, HEC 2019-2020): Jorge Díaz Ceballos, Ian Hathaway, Gašper Jakovac

What does it mean to experience a deadly epidemic? To better understand the social and cultural impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, historians Jorge Díaz Ceballos, Ian Hathaway, and Gašper Jakovac explore the long history of people’s encounters with epidemics in a series of public-facing podcasts. Teaming up with scholars from the EUI and beyond, they delve into individual sources and personal narratives, providing diverse and thought-provoking insights into the emotional, intellectual, social, and political challenges of experiencing epidemics before the rise of modern germ theory.

Experiencing Epidemics is supported by the COVID-19 Knowledge Hub of the European University Institute.

Follow the podcast series here.


Upcoming Events

Just a reminder of the next Max Weber Book Roundtable of this year.

Till van Rahden19 May 2021 (joint event with the Interdisciplinary Research Cluster ‘Democracy in the 21st century’)
Till van Rahden – University of Montréal

About the speaker
As Canada Research Chair in German and European Studies, I am developing a new research program to contribute to the writing of a cultural history of the political with an emphasis on the history of civil society, diversity, and democracy in Europe since the French Revolution. I aim to promote a broad understanding of the political, to historicize the boundary between the private and the public, and to explore the nexus between political ideas and agency in the public sphere. Although these questions are particularly pertinent to German and European history in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, my research program would contribute to global discussions about the possibility of writing a history of democracy, pluralism, and civil society that addresses what seems to be a growing uncertainty about the viability of a liberal democracy.

I am working on a monograph, tentatively titled ‘Bringing Democracy to Daddy: Changing Conceptions of Paternal Authority in West Germany, 1945-1970.’ The search for new forms of fatherhood was, I argue, not only often couched in religious terms but was also central to the cultural and political transformations in Germany between the early 1950s and the mid-1960s. A decade before ‘1968,’ men and women rejected authoritarian fatherhood and began to embrace what contemporaries labelled ‘democratic fatherhood,’ a softer and more emotional form of masculinity that would provide the basis for both a democratic family and a democratic society.

To explore key episodes in the cultural history of the political in modern Europe, I propose three distinct areas of inquiry, the relationship of democracy and violence in the ‘Age of Extremes,’ the fragile and contested renaissance of democracy in post-war Western Europe, and the tension between equality and difference since the Enlightenment.


Multidisciplinary Research Workshop 2020

Envisioning the Global South(s)
Organizers: Roberta Biasillo (RSC), Matteo Capasso (RSC), Wanshu Cong (LAW), Maria Dyveke Styve (HEC), Maria do Mar Gago (HEC), Lillian Frost (RSC)
Period: February-June 2021

Algorithmic pricing
Organizers: Arthur Dolgopolov (ECO), Agnieszka Jablonowska (LAW), Giacomo Tagiuri (LAW), Francesco Ducci (LAW)
Date: 25-27 March 2021

Organizers: Michele Castiglioni (SPS), Aline Bertolin (LAW)
Period: April-June 2021

Causes and Consequences of Inequality
Organizers: Weverthon Machado (SPS), Balaraju Battu (SPS), Aruni Mitra (ECO), Federica Querin (SPS)
Period: April-May 2021

Health and Healthcare in the Time of Pandemic
Organizers: Takuya Onoda (SPS), Katarzyna Doniec (SPS), Alexandru Moise (SPS), Mirjam Reutter (ECO), Aline Bertolin (LAW)
Period: April-May 2021

Humanitarian interventions: the invention of a tradition?
Organizers: Andrés Vincent (HEC), Orfeas Tassinis (LAW), Josef Ostransky (LAW)
Period: April-May 2021

Mobilities in the Early Modern and Contemporary Mediterranean
Organizers: Lavinia Maddaluno (HEC), Maria Vittoria Comacchi (HEC), Roberta Biasillo (RSC)
Date: 27-28 May 2021

States and Markets: Public Policymaking before and after COVID
Organizers: Miren Azkarate-Askasua (ECO), Paul Dermine (LAW), Donato Di Carlo (SPS), Cristina Lafuente Martinez (ECO), Giacomo Tagiuri (LAW)
Period: April-May 2021

Technocracy in Time and Space: Multidisciplinary Perspectives
Organizers: Takuya Onoda (SPS), Adélie Chevée (RSC), Sebastian Diessner (RSC), Paul Dermine (LAW), Wanshu Cong (LAW), Giacomo Tagiuri (LAW), Tommaso Milani (HEC)
Date: 31 May 2021

Radical Democracy and Populism
Organizers: Adélie Chevée (RSC), Guadalupe Correa Lopera (ECO), Takumi Shibaike (SPS), Josef Ostransky (LAW)
Period: May-June 2021

For more details closer to each event check the MWP website


Past Events

18 November 2020
Grounded Nationalisms
Online, Zoom

Moderator: Dorothee Bohle (MWP Director)

Panellists: Siniša Malešević (UCD), Veronica Anghel (MW Fellow, SPS), Jelena Dzankic (EUI, RSC), Benjamin Goossen (MW Fellow, HEC), Hanspeter Kriesi (EUI, SPS)

Watch the Book Roundtable online.

Watch the interview by two MW Fellows Veronica Anghel (SPS) and Benjamin Goossen (HEC).



2 December 2020
Europe's Crisis of Legitimacy: Governing by Rules and Ruling by Numbers in the Eurozone
Online, Zoom

Moderator: Dorothee Bohle (MWP Director)

Panellists: Vivien Schmidt (Boston University), Paul Dermine (MW Fellow, LAW), Sebastian Diessner (MW Fellow, RSC), Brigid Laffan (EUI, RSC)

Watch the Book Roundtable online.

Watch the interview by two MW Fellows Donato Di Carlo (SPS) and Sebastian Diessner (RSC).



3 February 2021
The Code of Capital: How the Law Creates Wealth and Inequality
Online, Zoom

Moderator: Dorothee Bohle (MWP Director)

Panellists: Katharina Pistor (Columbia Law School), Katarzyna Doniec (MW Fellow, SPS), Martijn Hesselink (EUI, LAW), Alvaro Pereira (MW Fellow, LAW), Giacomo Tagiuri (MW Fellow, LAW)

Watch the Book Roundtable online.

Watch the Interview by two MW Fellows (LAW), Josef Ostransky and Giacomo Tagiuri.




In line with the EUI Open Access Policy, we invite you to send to us and to Cadmus any academic publication that you have published during or after your time at the MWP of the EUI. If the publication is based on research that you carried out here at the EUI, it is eligible for inclusion in Cadmus, the EUI Research Repository. Having your work in Cadmus increases the visibility of your research; Cadmus is indexed in Google Scholar, harvestable by other international portals (including Worldcat and EBSCO) and interoperable with ORCID.

  • Jean Beaman (SPS 2012-2013): Promoted to associate professor of Sociology at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
  • Ylenia Brilli (ECO 2013-2015): Appointed assistant professor (tenure-track) at Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Department of Economics.
  • Maria Adele Carrai (LAW 2015-2017): Hired as assistant professor of Global China Studies at New York University Shanghai.
  • Elise Dermineur (HEC 2010-2011): From January 2021, associate professor of Economic History at Stockholm University.
  • Julie Deschepper (HEC 2019-2020): Academic assistant / Wissenschaftliche Assistentin at the Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz – Max-Planck-Institut.
  • Brad Epperly (SPS 2012-2013): Has started as an assistant professor of Political Science at the University of British Columbia Okanagan.
  • Valentina Fava (HEC 2006-2008): Since August 2020, assistant professor of Economic History at the Department of Management, Ca' Foscari University, Venice.
  • Margherita Fort (ECO 2006-2007): From September 2020, promoted to full professor in Economics at the University of Bologna, Department of Economics.
  • Diane Fromage (LAW 2014-2015): In September 2020 started a Marie Sklodowska-Curie fellowship at Sciences Po (Paris).
  • Alexander Katsaitis (RSC 2016-2017): Now a Fellow in Public Policy & Administration at the London School of Economics.
  • Paul McDonough (LAW 2017-2018): Now a lecturer in Law at Cardiff University, Wales.
  • Bilyana Petkova (LAW 2015-2016): Appointed as Full Professor in Law and Society in the Digital Age at the University of Graz.
  • Gisela Rühl (LAW 2007-2008): Has recently taken up a new position at Humboldt-University Berlin.
  • Paul van Hooft (SPS 2016-2018): In 2020 joined the Hague Centre for Strategic Studies where he is setting up its trans-Atlantic relations program. The program examines the consequences for Europe of the shift in American foreign policy towards the Indo-Pacific and how Europeans can address their security dependencies on the United States. Before joining HCSS, Paul was a postdoctoral fellow at the Security Studies Program of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 2018 to 2020.
  • Eugenia Vella (ECO 2013-2014): From the next academic year taking up a position as assistant professor at the Athens University of Economics and Business in Greece.
  • Veronica Anghel (SPS 2020-2021): Awarded a ‘rising star award’ by the ECPR, for more info.
  • Gregorio Bettiza (SPS 2012-2014): His book, Finding Faith in Foreign Policy: Religion and American Diplomacy in a Postsecular World (Oxford: 2019), was awarded an Honourable Mention by the International Studies Association (ISA), Religion in International Relations Section, book award 2020. This follows a Special Mention of Excellence awarded in 2019 by the European Academy of Religion (EUARE).
  • Matteo Capasso (RSC 2020-2021): Has been awarded a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Global Fellowship at Ca’ Foscari University of Venice. He will be working on the “GLIBAL” project (The Global Dimension of the Libyan Crisis), which will be undertaken between Ca Foscari UNIVE and Columbia NYC.
  • Adélie Chevée (RSC 2020-2021): Won the runner-up prize of the 2020 Leigh Douglas Memorial Prize, a dissertation prize awarded by the British Society for Middle Eastern Studies (BRISMES).
    Won the 2020 Dissertation Prize of the Syrian Studies Association.
  • Maria Vittoria Comacchi (HEC 2020-2021): Has been awarded a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Global Fellowship at Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, starting next academic year and lasting three years. She will work on PostelEast. Guillaume Postel and the East: Universalism in the Global Renaissance, undertaken between Indiana University Bloomington (Department of History) and at Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia (Department of Philosophy and Cultural Heritage).
  • Brad Epperly (SPS 2012-2013): Won the Michael J. Mungo Undergraduate Teaching Award in 2018.
  • Margherita Fort (ECO 2006-2007): Has been awarded the Small Grant for Education Research (P.I.) on Gender Differences in STEM: Can Teaching Girls to Code Close the Gaps? funded by the Spencer Foundation.
    Also awarded the EIEF grant (P.I.) with M. Carlana (Harvard Kennedy School).
  • Inés Valdez (SPS 2011-2012): Won the Sussex International Theory Prize 2020 for her book Transnational Cosmopolitanism: Kant, Du Bois, and Justice as a Political Craft (Cambridge University Press, 2019).
  • Eugenia Vella (ECO 2013-2014): Has been awarded a grant by the Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation as Principal Investigator to study the macroeconomic effects of the brain drain in Greece during the European debt crisis.
  • Annabelle Wittels (SPS 2019-2021): Together with her colleague Olav Daahlgard from Kings College London, awarded a COVID-19 rapid response grant of GBP 57,000. They will test different behavioural science strategies to help compliance with public safety prescriptions regarding lowering the risks of spreading COVID-19 on mass transport in the UK, for more info.
  • Alexandre Afonso (SPS 2010-2011) and Anne-Isabelle Richard (HEC 2010-2011): Their son Frederic was born on 8 November 2020.
  • Agustin Casas (ECO 2011-2012): Nahuel was born on 13 November 2020, to Yarine Fawaz and Agustin Casas. His big brother Zakaria had been waiting for him for a long time.
  • Sarah Easterby-Smith (HEC 2010-2011): Sarah and her partner (Katie Jones) got a civil partnership on Thursday 30 July 2020. It was a proper ‘lockdown’ affair – in the garden (and in the rain) and with only seven socially-distanced guests. Quite different from the original plan but still a very happy day!
  • Wessel Reijers (RSC 2018-2020): Arthur was born on 27 August 2020 in Hamburg to Wessel and Lisa.

The MWP Newsletter is a platform for current and former Fellows to share their news and short articles about their academic experience. Please send them to